Pakistan

Source: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/

Source: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/

 

The full report on Pakistan is available for download here.

Geography and Population statistics
• Southern Asia, pharmacist
bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north,
• Karachi 13.125 million; Lahore 7.132 million; Faisalabad 2.849 million; Rawalpindi 2.026 million; ISLAMABAD (capital) 832,000 (2009)
• Border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
• Population 190,291,129 (July 2012 est.) Country comparison to the world:6
• Net migration rate: -2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
• Urban population: 36% of total population (2010)
(Source: CIA The World Factbook)

Political situation
• Government type: Federal Republic
• Constitution: last amended 28 February 2012
• Legal system: common law system with Islamic law influence
• Chief of state: President Asif Ali ZARDARI (since 9 September 2008)
• Head of government: Prime Minister Raja Pervaiz ASHRAF (since 22 June 2012)
(Source: CIA The World Factbook)

Migration patterns and trends

• International migration from the area which is known as Pakistan started during British Raj. The first emigration was based on colonial linkages with Britain. Pakistani diaspora in UK is considered most established and biggest in Europe.

• In the context of tightening British restrictions since the 1970s, Pakistanis have been diverted first towards Middle East, Scandinavia, continental Europe, North America and Australia and even to Greece.
• By the early 1980s, some 2 million Pakistanishad migrated in the Gulf region.
• With over 1.6 million people fromAfghanistan, Pakistan hosts the largest and most protected refugee population anywhere in the world.
• As of October 2012 there were approximately 724,200 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Pakistan affected by the ongoing security operations in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).
(Source: UNHCR, IOM, Gazdar 2003, Leghari 2009, )

Migration to Greece
Pakistanis constitute one of the first groups of Asian migrants that arrived in Greece during the 1970s on the basis of an intergovernmental agreement between Greece and Pakistan. Following this agreement, a small number of Pakistani men migrated to Athens in order to work in the ship-building industry of Skaramangka, where there were labour shortages. (Tonchev, 2007:15).

In the late 1980s gradually and slowly, the number of Pakistani immigrants increased in Greece (Leghari, 2009:6). Greece became a country of transit for Pakistanis, who mostly entered Greece illegally on their way to other European destinations. For some Greece was the final destination. Since 1991, however, there was a significant intensification of migration flows from Pakistan to Greece that lead to the establishment of the first migrant Pakistani community (Salvanou&Kambouri, 2009:5).

Until 2005 during the last regularization scheme in Greece, several Pakistani immigrants succeeded in regularizing their stay while others continue to apply for refugee status in the attempt to ‘buy time’. However, a great number of immigrants from Pakistan either irregulars or visa overstayers may remain undocumented for relatively long periods of time. In addition, a high percentage of Pakistanis are residing in Greece undocumented as, especially due to the financial crisis and the difficulties they encounter in obtaining the required number of social security stamps, they simply fail to renew their permits (Broersma&Lazarescu, 2009:1).

Selected bibliography
Actionaid Pakistan. (2009). Baseline Study on illegal migration, human smuggling and trafficking in Pakistan. European Union AENEAS programme 2004-2006. Peshawar, Actionaid Pakistan & European Union.

Ahmad, A. N. (2008). The romantic appeal of illegal migration: Gender, masculinity and human smuggling from Pakistan. Illegal Migration and Gender in a Global and Historical Perspective. M. Schrover, van der J. Leun, L. Lucassen &C. Quispel. Amsterdam, IMISCOE Research Amsterdam University Press: 127-150.

Antonopoulos, G.A. & Winterdyk, J.(2006). The Smuggling of Migrants in Greece An Examination of its Social Organization, European Journal of Criminology, 3: 439-61.

Azam, F. (2009). Human Trafficking, Human Smuggling and Illegal Migration to and from Pakistan. Study conducted for the BEFARe, Peshawar with the support of ActionAid Pakistan and the European Commission, Islamabad.

Gazdar, H. (2003). A Review of Migration Issues in Pakistan. UDBASTU: A Newsletter on Refugees and Migratory Movements, Issue 25. Dhaka: RMMRU.

Lazarescu, D.& Broersma, F. (2010) ???? ??????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ???? ?????? [New migratory paths. Pakistanis and Bangladeshis in Greece]. In: Triandafyllidou, Anna; Maroukis, Thanos (eds) (2010). ? ???????????? ???? ?????? ??? 21?? ???? [migration in 21st century Greece], Athens: Kritiki, in Greek, 2010. P. 381-441.

Leghari, I. U. (2009). Pakistani immigrants in Greece: from changing pattern of migration to Diaspora politics and transnationalism. 4th LSE PhD Symposium on Contemporary Greece. London School of Economics.

Salvanou, A., Kambouri, H., Dermentzopoulos, C. (2009). Culture, Identity and Movement: A Study in the Social Anthropology of the everyday life and popular representations of migrants from Pakistan in N. Ionia, John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation.

Tonchev, P. (2007). Asian Migrants in Greece: Origins, Status and Prospects. Institute of International Economic Relations., Department of Asian Studies.

Triandafyllidou, A. & Maroukis, T. (2012). Migrant Smuggling: Irregular Migration from Asia and Africa to Europe. Migration, Minorities and Citizenship Series, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.