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?? ??????????, discount ??????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ??????????, recuperation ????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ?????. ????????? ?? ?? ????, ?? ????, ?? ????????, ?? ???????????, ????????????? ??? ????????????. ? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ??? ?????? ????.

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?? ?????????? ????????? ?? 34 ??????????? ???????????, ??? ?????????????? ?? ????????, ? ???? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????.

?????????: ?? 2011 ? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? 32.4 ??.

??????????? ??????????????: ???????? ???????? 8 ????????? ??????, ?? ??????? (42%) ??? ????? ??? ? ??????????, ?? ???????? (27%), ?? ?????? (9%), ?? ???????? (9%), ?? ????? (4%), ?? ???????? (3%), ?? ???????? (2%) ??? ????? (4%).

????????: ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????? ???????? ????????????, ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????.

???????? ???????: ????? ??? ??????

?? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? (??????????, ???????, ????????, ????????, ??? ??????????)

(?????: CIA World Factbook, IOM, UNHCR)

???????? ???????

? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????? ???????, ?? ??? ????????? ????????????? (30) ?? ?????????????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? (1979), ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????, ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? (1994).
???? ?? ???????? ??? 11?? ??????????? ??? 2001 ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????. ? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? 2001 ???????????????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????????????? ???????.

? Hamid Karzai ????? ? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???????? ?? 2004 ??? ???????????? ?? 2009.

??????????????? ??????

• ????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?/??? ?? ????????? ??????????
• ? ????????? ??????? ??? 1979 ??? ? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ?? 1990 ??????? 6.22 ?? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ????.
• ????? ??? ?? 2001, ?? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????, ???? ???????????? ?????? (?????? ??? ????????), ????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ?????? ????????? ????????????? ???????????.
• ???? ??? 5 ?? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? 2002 ??? ???? (?????? ???? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????)
• ???? ??? 2.6 ?? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??? ???????? (1.6 ?? ????????? ????? ??????????, ??? 1 ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????????)
• ??????? 1 ?? ???????????? ??? ?????????, ??? ?? ???????? ????????, ??? ????.
• ? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?? 2012 ??????? ??????? 450.000 ????????? ???????????? ??? ????.

(?????: UNHCR, IOM, Saito 2009)

???????????? ???? ??? ??????

H ???????????? ??? ? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? (Monsutti, 2006; Punjani, 2002 Edwards 1986).

? ???????????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ????????. ?? ??? ?????????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ?? 2001, ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? «?????? ??????» (UNHCR, 2012) ??? ???????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????. ????????, ??????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ????? ???????????? ????? ??????????: ?? ??????????, ?? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????????, ?? ??????? ????? ????????????????. ? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ???? ???????? (??????????, 2012), ??? ????????????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????-???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????.
? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????? ? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????, ??? ??????? ?? ?? ??????? ??????????. ? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ????????? ??????, ??? ???????? ??????????? ??????, ?? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????, ??? ????? ????????? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ?????????. ? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????????? ???? ??? ???? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????????.
? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????????????????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????????? ????, ???? ??? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ?????, ????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????, ????????? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ?????-???? ??? ?.?. ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????????.

?????????? ???????????? 

Edwards, D.B. (1986). ‘Marginality and migration: cultural dimensions of the Afghan refugee problem’. International Migration Review, 20 (2).

??????????, ?. (2012). ‘???????? ??? ???????????? ???? ??????: ? ????????? ??? ???????, ?????????? ??? ????????????????’, ??????????? ???????? (?? ????????????).

Goodson, L. (2001). ‘Afghanistan’s Endless War: State failure, regional politics, and the rise of the Taliban’. Seattle, University of Washington Press.

HRW (2002). ‘Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan Closed door policy: Afghan refugees in Pakistan and Iran’. 14 (2), Human Rights Watch.

Kronenfeld, D. A. (2008). «Afghan Refugees in Pakistan: not all refugees, not always in Pakistan, not necessarily Afghan?» Journal of Refugee Studies 21(1): 43-63.

Monsutti A. (2007). ‘Migration as a rite of passage: young Afghans building masculinity and adulthood in Iran’, Iranian Studies, 40 (2), pp. 167-185.

—- (2006). ‘Afghan Transnational Networks: Looking Beyond Repatriation’, Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, Kabul.

Punjani, S.(2002). ‘How ethno-religious identity influences the living conditions of Hazara and Pashtun Refugees in Peshawar, Pakistan’, Working Paper 14, Cambridge: MIT.

Saito, M. ((2009).“Searching for my homeland: dilemmas between borders. Experiences of young Afghans returning ‘home’ from Pakistan and Iran”. Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, Kabul.

????: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/

????: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/

? ?????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ????????? ???.

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• ????????? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ???????, page
?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ??????
• ? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????? 832,000 (2009) ??? ????? ??????? ??????: Karachi 13.125 ??., Lahore 7.132 ??., Faisalabad 2.849 ??., Rawalpindi 2.026 ??.
• ????????? ??: ?????????? (2,430 ???), ???? (523 ???), (????? 2,912 ???), ???? (909 ???)
• ?????????: 190,291,129 (??????? 2012), ??????? ?????????: 36% ??? ????????? ????????? (2010)
(????: ? CIA World Factbook)

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????? ??????????: ???????????? ??????????
????????: ????????? ??????????? ???? 28 ??????????? 2012
?????? ???????: ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ???????
??????? ??? ???????: ???????? Asif Ali ZARDARI (??? ??? 9 ??????????? 2008)
?????????? ??? ??????????: ???????????? Raja Pervaiz ASHRAF (??? ??? 22 ??????? 2012)
(????: ? CIA World Factbook)

?????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?? ????????
• ? ??????? ???????????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????????. ? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?? ????????. ? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ???? ??????.
• ??? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ???? ?? 1960, ?? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?.???????, ???????????, ???????? ??????, ?. ???????, ????????? ??? ??????.
• ???? ??? ????? ??? ’80, ??????? 2 ??????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????.
• ? ????? ????????? ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? 1.6 ??????????? ??????? ?????????.
• ???? ??? ???????? ??? 2012 ??????? ??????? 742.000 ????????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????????.
(?????: UNHCR, IOM, Gazdar 2003, Leghari 2009, )

???????????? ???? ??????
?? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ??? 1970 ????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????????. ??? ??????? ??? ?????????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????? (Tonchev, 2007:15).

???? ?? ???? ??? 1980 ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? (Leghari, 2009:6). ? ?????? ????????? ??? ???? ????????? (transit) ??? ???? ???????????, ??? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????. ??? ???????? ? ?????? ???? ? ??????? ??????????. ?????’???? ??? ?? 1991, ?????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?????????? (Salvanou & Kambouri, 2009:5).

????? ?? 2005 ???? ?? ???????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????????, ??????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?? “????????? ?????”. ?????’????, ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????, ???? ????????? ???? ???? ??????????? ??? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????, ??????? ?? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????????. ????????, ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? , ??’?????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? (Broersma &Lazarescu, 2009:1).

?????????? ????????????
Actionaid Pakistan. (2009). Baseline Study on illegal migration, human smuggling and trafficking in Pakistan. European Union AENEAS programme 2004-2006. Peshawar, Actionaid Pakistan & European Union.

Ahmad, A. N. (2008). The romantic appeal of illegal migration: Gender, masculinity and human smuggling from Pakistan. Illegal Migration and Gender in a Global and Historical Perspective. M. Schrover, van der J. Leun, L. Lucassen &C. Quispel. Amsterdam, IMISCOE Research Amsterdam University Press: 127-150.

Antonopoulos, G.A. & Winterdyk, J.(2006). The Smuggling of Migrants in Greece An Examination of its Social Organization, European Journal of Criminology, 3: 439-61.

Azam, F. (2009). Human Trafficking, Human Smuggling and Illegal Migration to and from Pakistan. Study conducted for the BEFARe, Peshawar with the support of ActionAid Pakistan and the European Commission, Islamabad.

Gazdar, H. (2003). A Review of Migration Issues in Pakistan. UDBASTU: A Newsletter on Refugees and Migratory Movements, Issue 25. Dhaka: RMMRU.

Lazarescu, D.& Broersma, F. (2010) ???? ??????????????? ?????????. ?????????? ??? ???????????????? ???? ?????? [New migratory paths. Pakistanis and Bangladeshis in Greece]. In: Triandafyllidou, Anna; Maroukis, Thanos (eds) (2010). ? ???????????? ???? ?????? ??? 21?? ???? [migration in 21st century Greece], Athens: Kritiki, in Greek, 2010. P. 381-441.

Leghari, I. U. (2009). Pakistani immigrants in Greece: from changing pattern of migration to Diaspora politics and transnationalism. 4th LSE PhD Symposium on Contemporary Greece. London School of Economics.

Salvanou, A., Kambouri, H., Dermentzopoulos, C. (2009). Culture, Identity and Movement: A Study in the Social Anthropology of the everyday life and popular representations of migrants from Pakistan in N. Ionia, John S. Latsis Public Benefit Foundation.

Tonchev, P. (2007). Asian Migrants in Greece: Origins, Status and Prospects. Institute of International Economic Relations., Department of Asian Studies.

Triandafyllidou, A. & Maroukis, T. (2012). Migrant Smuggling: Irregular Migration from Asia and Africa to Europe. Migration, Minorities and Citizenship Series, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.