Ukraine

Source: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/

Source: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/

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Geography and Population Statistics
• Eastern Europe, visit bordering the Black Sea, life between Poland, Romania, and Moldova in the west and Russia in the east
• KYIV (capital) 2.779 million; Kharkiv 1.455 million; Dnipropetrovsk 1.013 million; Odesa 1.009 million; Donetsk 971,000 (2009)
• Border countries: Belarus 891 km, Hungary 103 km, Moldova 940 km, Poland 428 km, Romania (south) 176 km, Romania (southwest) 362 km, Russia 1,576 km, Slovakia 90 km
• Ukraine has a strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; it is the second-largest country in Europe.
• Population: 44,854,065 (July 2012 est.), country comparison to the world: 30
• Net migration rate:-0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
• Urban population: 69% of total population (2010)
(Source: CIA The World Factbook)

Political Situation
• Government type:Republic
• Constitution:Adopted 28 June 1996
• Legal system:Civil law system; Judicial review of legislative acts
• Chief of state: President Viktor YANUKOVYCH (since 25 February 2010)
• Head of government: Prime Minister Mykola AZAROV (since 11 March 2010)
(Source: CIA The World Factbook)

Migration Patterns and Trends
In the early 90′s migration from Ukraine is characterized by: the migration of Ukrainians had ethnic characteristics when it comes to the countries of destination as the former Soviet republics and Israel, while only 20% migrated to western countries in order to find better living conditions. Directly after the independence of Ukraine in 1991 and its proclamation as a democratic state, many Ukrainians became petty traders and they were circulating between Ukraine and the neighboring countries – e.g. Poland, Hungary, Turkey and even China (Malynovska, 2006). The petty trade was the most popular and the initial form of labour migration at that time. During the ‘90s the issue of human trafficking of women aiming their sexual exploitation in Western European countries, in the Balkans and in the Near East rocked the society and led to new legislation measures against the traffickers of human beings.
The labour migration intensified in the late ‘90s pushed mainly by economic reasons, such as unemployment and low wages, and was mostly in irregular means. While in the neighboring countries (Poland, Hungary, Russia) the migration was temporary and circular, in southern and western Europe was long-term. The Ukrainians abroad are employed mostly in construction, in agriculture and in domestic work sectors. In 2008 and 2009 the total number of Ukrainians who hold residence permits has declined, which could signify a loss of manpower demand during the crisis in the European Union and Norway (Hofmann &Reichel, 2011).

Migration to Greece
With regards to the areas of origin, Ukrainian migration to Greece began from the Western areas of the country, followed by Central areas and in the mid-90’s from the Eastern and Southern parts of the country. Based on census and LFS data between 2001 and 2008 Ukrainian women were ranging between 72 and 82% of the Ukrainian population in Greece, thus Ukrainian migration to Greece is highly gendered, however there is a small but steady increase of the number of men after 2001 and a decrease of the number of women between 2005 and 2008 (Nikolova& Maroufof, 2010). With regards to age it does not come as a surprise that the majority of Ukrainians in Greece belong to the most productive age groups. The educational level of Ukrainian immigrants in Greece appears particularly high, in fact substantially higher than that of the country’s general population.
The first phase of Ukrainian migration to Greece (1990-1998) is characterized by entry using tourist visas which are later overstayed. During the second phase (1998-2004), which is characterized by subsequent regularization programs, living and working conditions improved, however ‘return to irregularity’ was not a rare phenomenon as many migrants did not manage to fill the requirements for renewing their residence permit (Nikolova& Maroufof, 2010).Psimmenos and Skamnakis (2008) consider that the duration of stay of the women working in domestic services depends on the economic or educational needs of their children. According to an estimate by Nikolova and Maroufof (2010) based on census and LFS data the size of Ukrainian population in Greece in 2008 was approximately 30,000 persons. The majority (about 60%) of the Ukrainian population in Greece is concentrated in Athens while relatively high concentration rates also appear in central Macedonia, Peloponnesus and Crete. Ukrainians in Greece show high rates of employment in domestic work followed by commerce, employment in hotels and catering, in small industries and in constructions.

Selected bibliography
Düvell, F. (2007) “Ukraine – Europe’s Mexico?”,Research Resources Report 1/3: Country Profile, Central and East European Migration, COMPAS, http://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/fileadmin/files/Publications/Research_projects/Flows_dynamics/Transit_migration_Ukraine/Ukraine_Country%20Report_1of3.pdf
Hofmann, ?.,Reichel, ?. (2011) ‘Ukrainian Migration: An analysis of migration movements to, through and from Ukraine’, International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) http://www.integrationsfonds.at/laenderinformation/ukrainianmigration/#c9630
Levchenko, K., Sayenko. Y. (eds.) (2010) “‘Ukrainian Greece’ Reasons, Problems, Prospects (According to the labour migrants’ interview results)”, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, International Women’s Rights Centre “La Strada-Ukraine”, Kyiv
Malynovska, ?. (2006) «Caught Between East and West, Ukraine Struggles with Its Migration Policy», http://www.migrationinformation.org/USFocus/display.cfm?ID=365
Maratou-Alipranti, L. (2007) “Female Migration in Greece: The findings of KETHI’s Pan-Hellenic research”, KETHI (Research Centre on Gender Equality) (in Greek)
Nikolova, M. & Maroufof, M. (2010) “Georgian and Ukrainian immigrants in Greece”’ in: A. Triandafyllidou, Th. Maroukis (eds) ‘The immigration in Greece in the 21st century’, Kritiki, (in Greek)
Psimmenos, I. &Skamnakis, G. (2008). ‘Migrant domestic workers and social protection: The case of the women from Albania and Ukraine’, Papazisi (in Greek)